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Urban water supplies-why there is no pressure found in the distribution network

Almost all towns and cities supplying water in intermittent mode, especially the South Asia cities and particularly Indian towns and cities are confronted with inadequate pressure during the supply duration. the problem has got aggravated where the supply durations are drastically curtailed. the main reason is the enormously high peak factors that is resulting out of simultaneous drawing of water by consumers. in fact, consumers draw water within the limited time the water is available from the network, and stores the water quantity and consumes the quantity received during 24 hours. this results in merely transferring of the water quantity from Municipal storage to the consumer storage within the short supply duration. whereas the Municipal storage undergoes throughout 24 hours, the clear water storage gets drastically reduced and looses head on account of the declining water level. the discharge Q ( which is seldom measured through flow meters or other devices) results in heavy hf losses, which ultimately reduces the network pressures. the only remedy lies in adopting continuous water supply where consumers are assured of water availability at any time of the day, hence would naturally desist from drawing water simultaneously. of course, consumer end metering should be the pre-condition before opting for the continuous water supply. this would reduce the water loss, improve the network pressure, and prevent the water contamination due to  the negative pressure occuring  during the non-supply hours. the consumers too would be spared from drawing water at inconvenient time and also the electric energy they expend in pumping water to their individual over head tank.   

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