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Urban Water

Sweet smell of success: Human waste fertilises land & turns farmers wealthy in Bangalore

By spreading human sewage on fields that grow crops, farmers the world over fertilise the soil with rich organic carbon and nutrients in urine and faeces, reduce chemical additives and gather a bumper harvest.

Human excreta is loaded with nutrients, which when disposed off discriminately, increases pollution and leads to a loss of resources. On an average a human being produces some 500 litres of urine and 50 kilograms of faeces a year, sufficient to fertilise plants that would produce more than 200 kilograms of cereals! Scale it up and almost 40 per cent of nutrients in chemical fertilisers could be replaced by the world’s excreta.

Honey sucker trucks

Honey sucker trucks deposit sewage in farms for fertilisation of crops ( Image courtesy: Vishwanath Srikantaiah)

Trucks in Bangalore, deceptively named ‘ Honey suckers’, collect sewage and deposit them in farms that use this smelly, stinking cargo to sweeten their crops. In Mexico city, untreated sewage is piped to Tulla farms, to fertilise it; in Gujarat, farmers compete for the sewage at annual auctions- today farmers realise the full potential & economics of human waste.

Potential of human excreta

An individual produces waste in a year sufficient to fertilise plants that produce 200 kg of cereal ( Image courtesy: newscientist.com)

A few more examples are -Israel which uses around 70 per cent of the treated effluent from its sewage treatment works for irrigation and Singapore which uses treated sewage effluent for drinking. Other benefits of this recycling include conservation of phosphate reserves & energy resources, pollution reduction and saving depleting water resources & enormous infrastructure costs.

Dry sewage

Safer sewage: Drying faeces fully before mixing with soil helps kill pathogens ( Image courtesy: Vishwanath Srikantaiah)

The downswing of this trend is the health hazards associated with these crops. To maximise the benefits of recycling sewage onto land without creating health problems, inculcating safe practices for handling faeces and improving hygiene are vital. The best way to grab most of the advantages of nutrient and water recycling without imposing health hazards is to treat sewage before giving it to farmers.

We need to rethink and begin to recycle our faeces and urine as we recycle scarce metals, as for a developing country, the best option, both economically and ecologically, may be the sewage farm.

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Experiences from a civil society initiative to restore stretches of toxic Yamuna: Report of a conference organised by PEACE, Thames River Restoration Trust and WWF India at New Delhi in March 2013

The Thames River Restoration Trust, UK, WWF-India and PEACE Institute Charitable Trust, Delhi held a conference on “Sharing experiences and lessons learnt from the Thames and Ganga Twinning Project” on March 1, 2013 at the India International Centre, New Delhi.

Dr Peter Spillet of the Thames River Restoration Trust shared that the Trust was the recipient of the 2010 Theiss International Riverprize funds on behalf of many organizations involved in the restoration work on river Thames in United Kingdom. He said that the Trust had shared the money for twinning projects in various countries including in India.

This conference presents the results of the 2011-13 twinning programme. The Trust collaborated with PEACE and WWF to work with local communities working on Yamuna river restoration, he said.

Dr Ashghar Nawab, Senior Projects Coordinator, WWF-India noted that they ran the project on the Upper Ganges river at the Hastinapur Wildlife Sanctuary in Uttar Pradesh to re-introduce the endangered Gharial and other wildlife there and in the lower Yamuna river area. At the same time they helped local people improve their agricultural practices to improve their standard of living.

The long term plan was to ensure a viable population of Gharial with a favourable habitat through increased capacity support from the local communities. The project was to benefit fish population, freshwater turtles, Ganges river dolphins and other riverine species in the lower Yamuna river such as otters and water birds, he said.

Field survey

Intensive field surveys were conducted to monitor species diversity and evaluate threats to habitat (Image courtesy: WWF-India)

In the stretch between Bateshwar Ghat, Agra to Dibholi Ghat, Etawah the frontline forest staff was trained in monitoring and assessing the Gharial population and habitat, thereby transferring WWF-India expertise in this field to the Forest Department.

Gharial

Female Gharial recorded with about 18 hatchlings; this is the first record of Gharial ‘nesting’ in river Yamuna (Image courtesy: WWF-India)

In this project, work was done with the local communities to reduce dependency on river resources. Alternative livelihood options were provided by creating links with government village development schemes. Local Youth Conservation Forum was built to instill a sense of ownership for the protection of the species.

Dr Nawab stated that biodiversity conservation was inextricably linked to the protection of habitat in terms of availability of prey and suitable sites for shelter. Biodiversity recorded represents endangered species like the Ganges Dolphin, Gharial and the black-necked Stork. Peripheral areas of the National Chambal Sanctuary fall in the Yamuna, which are used as seasonal migratory routes by endangered species like Gharial.

Dolphin

Small population of Ganges river dolphin were observed near Pathewara village, Hamirpur (Image courtesy: S R Taigore)

Such habitats maybe recognized or proposed as conservation units needing effective protection measures on urgent basis. Technical assistance is being provided to the Forest Department in the development of a Biodiversity Conservation Action Plan for Yamuna. Riparian communities with stake in long term future of freshwater species and habitats across the region must be fully engaged in the development and conservation planning processes. This will help assure the future sustainability of associated livelihoods and the ecosystem services provided by fully functioning freshwater ecosystems.

Manoj Misra stated that PEACE’s work on the river Yamuna has evolved, and the partnership with TRRT and WWF-India is a part of this process. It started with devising and testing a People’s River Health Index (PRHI) in 2010 supported by a two-year grant from the UNDP-SGP. Findings from the PRHI project became the activities under the Twinning Project. The activities were spread over ten grids along the river Yamuna.

Nadi Mitra Mandalis (NMMs) were set up as formal registered societies at each grid and acted as instruments for action addressing the “non point” threats to the river. The focus of the project was on promotion of natural or organic farming, improved sanitation and waste water management, solid and farm refuse management, catchment restoration, river and village health assessment, institutional strengthening and outreach to school children.  

Activities taken up included development of plantation, recharge well, pond and well restoration, solar lamps, eco-san toilets and repair of village drains. 6,000 trees have been planted along the river at ten locations. Monthly monitoring of river health (water quality, quantity and biodiversity) and village health parameters was being done at all the grids by the NMMs.

Dave Wardle, Twinning Project Chairman discussed the work of the Thames River Restoration Trust in improving the biologically dead river. He provided an account of how the Thames system suffered from problems such as pollution, physical alteration, low water flows and loss of wildlife habitat. The work of the Trust in improving the Thames system was discussed. He shared how TRRT helped restore the Thames and its tributaries through its policy lobbying work and by helping produce the Thames River Basin Management Plan, London Rivers Action Plan and Thames Water Resources Plan. The river is as free of pollution as possible and has been able to meet water quality standards.

Thames

Thames river (Image courtesy: Thames River Restoration Trust)

Dr. Robert Oates, Director of the Thames River Restoration Trust stated that significant stretches of the river have been restored to a natural structure, to enable functioning natural processes and sustainable ecosystems.

The technical sessions led by Bhim Rawat and Sita Ram Taigor of PEACE along with representatives of the Nadi Mitra Mandalis elaborated on the activities taken up in each grid and the experiences therein. 

Download these documents : Size
River restoration techniques - Presentation by Manoj Misra, PEACE (2013)7.55 MB
International river prize - Presentation by Dave Wardle, TRRT (2013)13.92 MB
Mainstreaming biodiversity conservation in river Yamuna - Presentation by Asghar Nawab, WWF India (2013)12.93 MB
Thames Ganga Twinning Project - Presentation by Peter Spillett, TRRT (2013)2.58 MB
Bateshwer grid in Yamuna - PEACE (2013)5.55 MB
Ekdala grid in Yamuna - PEACE (2013)5.59 MB
Gadaya grid in Yamuna - PEACE (2013)5.66 MB
Hamirpur grid in Yamuna - PEACE (2013)7.02 MB
Kanalsi grid in Yamuna - PEACE (2013)15.99 MB
Katapathar grid in Yamuna - PEACE (2013)13.23 MB
Kharadi grid in Yamuna - PEACE (2013)8.22 MB
Oba grid in Yamuna - PEACE (2013)8.03 MB
Pachnada grid in Yamuna - PEACE (2013)5.04 MB
Ramra grid in Yamuna - PEACE (2013)10.37 MB

Biomimicry: Nature inspired innovations in buildings & processes for a sustainable living

Biomimicry is a science that studies nature’s models, imitates or takes inspiration from them and shapes designs and processes that help reduce source depletion.

Learning from nature, a master craftsmen, that has been evolving for millions of years, we can create efficient, living buildings, learn to use sunlight and recycle energy, reduce pollution and be in tune with our environment!


Biomimicry

From the Greek bios, life, and mimesis, imitation comes the word-biomimicry ( Image courtesy:  inhabitat.com )

By looking upon nature as a role model, a sustainable measure and a mentor, we can reshape our thinking, and find innovative answers to many problems. By valuing nature’s models and imitating them; designers today are beginning to shape buildings and design unconventional processes.

Nature has very specific ways for dealing with conservation during times of scarcity. Grass becomes dormant during droughts, birds conserve food. Animals and plants too have an intrinsic ability to monitor and self-regulate. Thinkers today are regrouping to find a way to learn and adapt from these natural phenomenon around them.

Water being a finite source, a biomimetic approach for encouraging responsible water usage can have a major impact. In urban water consumption nature can inspire relevant, everyday solutions for city inhabitants to conserve water. A New York-based team ‘Smart Design’ took up the IBM Biomimicry challenge and worked on this concept and come up with suggestions for water conservation, inspired from ecosystems.

How sensitivity to water consumption & conservation can be enhanced: IBM Biometric challenge ( Source: vimeo.com)

They created the Heartbeat Faucet, which provides feedback by pulsing after dispensing water. This metered pulse allows users to see and feel how much water they are using each time they turn on the faucet, informing everyone in the household about their behaviour. They also developed a program that would track the building's water and give a community reward, if water consumption came in below a set target.

Another nature inspired idea was the creation of MicroParks, tiny greenspaces throughout the city. The' MicroParks' water feed could be manipulated to reflect the cities future water supply--a lush MicroPark communicated a healthy water supply and a withering MicroPark let residents know that conservation is critical. These miniature green spaces act in a similar manner to rivers and streams , where one could see the physical condition of the water sources and connect with it, making behavior-changing connections in a positive way.

Buildings too need to be a living organism, where all systems are interconnected for maximum efficiency and minimum environmental impact. It should be compatible with the natural surroundings, harvest its water and energy needs on site, operate pollution free, be locally relevant and generate any waste that cannot be reused in the immediate environment.

Qatars cactus building

Energy efficient catus inspired building in Qatar ( Courtesy: inhabitat.com)

In Qatar a new office building takes the form of a towering cactus, designed to be energy efficient and utilizing sun shades on its windows. Depending on the intensity of the sun during the day, the sun shades can open or close to keep out the heat. This is similar to how a cactus chooses to perform transpiration at night rather during the day in order to retain water – another great example of biomimicry.

Termite inspired building

Termite inspired office in Harare, Zimbabwe, with no air conditioning ( Courtesy: inhabitat.com)

Another wonderful example is a mid-rise building in Harare, Zimbabwe that has no air-conditioning, yet stays cool thanks to a termite-inspired ventilation system. It is modelled on the self-cooling mounds termites that maintain the temperature inside their nest to within one degree of 31 °C, day and night, while the external temperature varies between 3 °C and 42 °C. The building uses only 10 percent of the energy of a conventional building its size, and has saved 3.5 million in air conditioning costs in the first five years.

The more our world functions like the natural world, and we apply designs inspired from nature, the more likely we are to solve man made problems in a sustainable manner.

For more information on Biomimicry

What is Biomimicry? Click here

An example of application of Biomimicry, click here 

A book on Biomimicry in Architecture, click here

 Biomimetic Architecture, click here

Papers on biomimicry, click here and here

Water in India: Situation and prospects – Book release by UNICEF, FAO and SaciWaters

New indices are needed to measure available water resources, says a report on the state of the water sector in India, entitled Water in India: Situation and Prospects by UNICEF, FAO and SaciWATERS. The report released at UNDP, New Delhi on February 14, 2013 attempts to consolidate the significant amounts of information available on water and sanitation in India and also aims to examine the key current challenges in the sector; both the threats and opportunities for the water sector in India.

Dr Aidan Cronin, Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Specialist, UNICEF gives a sneak preview to the report

Video courtesy: UNICEF

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Everything you wanted to know about rivers in India - Compilation of all videos from the "Living rivers, dying rivers" series of talks organised by India International Centre and Centre for Policy Research at New Delhi over 2011-12

The India International Centre launched a series of talks titled ‘Living Rivers, Dying Rivers’ in collaboration with the Centre for Policy Research. The attempt was to join the crucial debates surrounding the alarming increase in environmental degradation, especially of rivers and river systems, without which the very survival of all species is in jeopardy.

A certain number of rivers, some sick or dying, some living and healthy, and some showing early signs of sickness, were taken up for presentations and discussion, and an attempt made to understand what has gone wrong in many cases, what has gone right in some, and what needs to be done to revive and restore dying or sick rivers. The series has been conceived and carried forward by India’s foremost expert in the field, Prof. Ramaswamy Iyer.

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Videos: Resurgence of the ahar pynes - Magadh Jal Jamaat helps revive 2000-year old flood water harvesting systems in Gaya, Bihar

Magadh Jal Jamaat, a loose network of progressive individuals in Gaya has been successfully able to revive over a dozen abandoned water sources and have instilled in people the need to create, clean up and conserve several lakes and ponds in the region. The problem of water scarcity had been of late afflicting the region, which once had a good system of ponds.

It is in this background that the group scripted a unique success story when they revived the Saryu talaab in 2006 and later on the Jamune Dasain in Gaya city with the help of Army Service Corps Gaya, Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF), police officials, professors, students, doctors and farmers. The revival of this pond set in motion a surge of constructive forces in the region and soon the effects ping-ponged into the revival of ahar pynes, the traditional water harvesting systems in the region. Around seventeen panchayats benefitted from the revival of the 28 km long Chapardha pyne, which carries greater discharge than the Son canal, the main public irrigation system in the area.

"Apna Pani - Apni Pahal" - A film on Magadh Jal Jamaat's work on reviving the ahar pyne systems in Gaya, Bihar - Part I

Magadh is centrally located in the present area of South Bihar. Its southern part is undulated and rocky while the northern part comprises of plains. There are plains ensconced within the undulated areas too where good agriculture has prevailed through the millennia. An elaborate network of ahar pynes have provided irrigation to the region, which was able to support the ancient Nalanda University and feed over fifty two water bodies in the area, which is constantly swarmed with pilgrims.

The area receives an annual average precipitation of over 1100 mm most of which falls during the monsoon months from June to September. Drawing upon centuries of experience, people built ahar pyne systems, to divert the floodwaters through pynes and stored them in ahars. Ahars are reservoirs with embankments on three sides and are built at the end of drainage lines such as rivulets or artificial works like pynesPynes are diversion channels led off from the river for irrigation purposes and for impounding water in the ahars.

It is mostly to the credit of these systems that paddy cultivation has been possible in this otherwise relatively low rainfall area, when compared to North Bihar. The system attained its highest development in the district of Gaya.

While the state had a role to play in the construction of the systems they were largely managed by the people in a collective mode. Modern development brought in hand pumps for drinking water purposes but very soon the decline of the aquifer led to them going defunct. The ahar pyne embankments got dilapidated, pynes became conduits of waste water and ponds became the new dumping grounds for solid wastes.

Rivers became big sewer lines and its beds were encroached for real estate purposes. The lakes meant for pilgrimage too got fouled and their water was no longer of bathing quality. Dug wells that brought up the water with diesel-powered pumps too started drying up and the supply of its water for the kharif season crop declined. The land could no longer support the families who lived on it, and this led to widespread migration. People got ever more alienated from community institutions which became weaker. They did not have time for community work such as maintaining ahar pynes, a final blow that rendered the systems defunct.

Religious tourism also played a significant role in hurrying this process. To tackle these, while in some villages people made efforts to revive these traditional systems, a tipping point that brought some of these systems back to life. But at most places they hung around waiting to be a part of the Son canal or Indrapuri barrage command area.

"Apna Pani - Apni Pahal" - A film on Magadh Jal Jamaat's work on reviving the ahar pyne systems in Gaya, Bihar - Part II

The state on the other hand was content at making laws. The Bihar Irrigation Act was enacted in 1997. Promila Pathak, Magadh Jal Jamaat has analysed the Act and is of the view that the provision of the Bihar Irrigation Act brings about privatization of state canal irrigation systems as well as ahar pynes. She says that as per the Act “all rights in the water of river, natural stream or natural drainage channel, natural lake or natural collection of water shall vest with the State Government subject to the provisions of Article 262 and Entry 56 of List of seventh schedule of the Constitution of India... Further, when the State Government proposes to construct a canal it shall publish a notification declaring its intention and indicating the site of the head work. And most importantly, no rights shall be acquired against the government under the provisions of the Indian Easement Act, 1882 in these waters."

Attempts have been made to privatise the traditional irrigation systems during the period 1997-2008 and the Magadh Jal Jamaat has been creating awareness about the consequences of this and the need to successfully restore the systems on a collective basis. While the state has been creating grounds for bringing in new policy and legal framework, Magadh Jal Jamaat has formulated a Water Policy for the Magadh region based on wide consultations.

Magadh Jal Jamaat came up with a booklet titled “Gaya shahar ki jal vyavastha: Samasya evam samadhan”, which attempts to deepen the understanding of the city’s physiography, hydrogeology, present status of water availability, its potential and based on these suggests water management measures that should be taken. It notes that the city when compared to places in Punjab and Gujarat is better endowed in terms of water availability but has highly inadequate water storage and distribution mechanism. The crisis according to Ravindra Pathak, Magadh Jal Jamaat is man-made and the problem has been plaguing the city in the drought years of 2006 and 2010.

While the State Government had rights over the water, the Bihar Irrigation Act also delegated the Collector with the authority to engage any agency to repair or construct the water systems whenever it is unable to do so on its own and this is one point which Magadh Jal Jamaat has utilised. In this locale, where agriculture is increasingly becoming unviable and irrigation costly, Magadh Jal Jamaat has created a momentum by focusing on smaller barrages on streams and calling for renovation of the system through regular removal of sand through reviving collective means like the traditional system of gomam (community labour), which had till some time ago seemed to have been washed away with the top soil.

They are actively working in close collaboration with the State Government to facilitate the creation of community based organizations for undertaking large-scale ahar-pyne renovation programme in the area. Ravindra Pathak notes that “so far the group has revived over a dozen abandoned water sources including Saryu talab in Gaya and has created several new ones”. 

Please find below two documents (in Hindi) by Magadh Jal Jammat -

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Gaya shahar ki jal vyavastha - The water systems of Gaya, Bihar - A booklet by Magadh Jal Jamaat14.38 MB
Magadh ki jal vyavastha - The water systems of Magadh region, Bihar - A booklet by Magadh Jal Jamaat58.16 MB

An exhibition at Studio Safdar in Shadi Khampur traces the history of the urban village and its water systems

Guest post: Amita Bhaduri

West Delhi’s dusty neighbourhood, Shadi Khampur now has its own museum, in the traditional brick-and-mortar sense. I live nearby, have worked out of an office here and am familiar with the alleyways. But I got to know only now, what life in the neighbourhood was like. Its rich history and its connect to larger narratives from the past, like the series of land acquisitions in Delhi, the Emergency, and the anti-Sikh riots of 1984 which had gone largely undocumented and unarchived have been chronicled in the Neighbourhood Museum of Local History of Shadi Khampur, at Studio Safdar, a cafe cum bookstore.

Studio Safdar

Neighbourhood Museum at Studio Safdar

Source: Facebook page on “Public Art Project at Studio Safdar”

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Wastewater irrigation in Hubli–Dharwad, Karnataka, enables farmers to diversify their cropping practices - A paper in the Environment and Urbanisation Journal

Farmers utilise the permanent streams of sewage-contaminated wastewater emanating from the twin city of Hubli–Dharwad to their advantage. This paper considers the effects of the availability of this perennial water resource and its effects upon livelihood practices of farmers and the implications for health.

This paper 'Wastewater irrigation in Hubli–Dharwad, India: Implications for health and livelihoods' is divided into the following sections:

Introduction

The area where the study was conducted, its rainfall pattern, climate, the physical characteristics, soil conditions and location of water courses are presented in this section.

Methodology

Surveys were conducted at intervals between 1997 and 2001, and in 2001, fieldwork was expanded to a transect-based study.

Wastewater-irrigated agriculture

  • Main cropping patterns : The 3 distinct cropping systems of vegetable production, field crops with vegetables, and agroforestry along with their spatial distribution is detailed here.
  • Irrigation methods :The method used consists of an overland flow and furrow irrigation system using a centrifugal pump along with some form of filtration.
  • Wastewater properties : Research showed that for many plant nutrient ions, concentrations in wastewater was similar to those from borehole water, with the exception of total suspended solids (TSS) and its associated biological oxygen demand (BOD ). Presence of heavy metals was below the permissible limits.
  • Vegetable production: A distinct feature of this system is the year-round production of vegetables for sale and the absence of a fallow period, requiring considerably higher labour input, as there is a problematic increase in the incidence of weeds and pests.
  • Field crops with vegetables: Larger farms have more land devoted to field crops, as vegetable production requires greater labour inputs. Nature of the cropping patterns changed at increased distance from Dharwad.
  • Agroforestry: In the peri-urban villages all farmers bordering the nalla engaged in wastewater-irrigated agroforestry.
  • Fodder production: A dairy farmer irrigated land for fodder production, alternating wastewater with borehole water on a daily basis, producing an impressive two-fold increase in milk yield.

Discussion

Health issues: Some of the major concerns are

  • Wastewater laden with faecal bacteria exposes the farmer to the risk of dysentery or cholera
  • Due to nutritional deficiency and worm infestation anaemia was common
  • Crop samples taken from a ridge were bacterially contaminated by the wastewater flowing in the furrow
  • Due to intensive use of pesticides, cumulative effect of organophosphate pesticide poisoning rises
  • Farmers have reported presence of disposable needles and syringes in the wastewater

Gender implications of wastewater irrigation

  • Due to the high nutrient loading from wastewater, there is great increase in the incidence of weeds leading to higher labour inputs
  • Higher percentage of women labourers are hired due to cheaper rates
  • Working full day in the fields increases women’s exposure to the hazards of wastewater
  • Food preparation and cooking by these women, increases the risk of pathogen transfer to other family members

Management of irrigation with wastewater

  • Outright banning of wastewater irrigation would be neither practical nor feasible
  •  The economic implications of such a measure too would be vast and affect the farmers in this area

Conclusion

For public health and environmental risks to be mitigated without threatening the livelihoods of poor farmers the following steps may be undertaken:

  • Involving non-governmental organizations in mobilizing the farming community into self-help groups to facilitate learning in sustainable agricultural practices
  • A village-based extension approach to suit safer and more sustainable farming practices
  • Public health benefits could be enhanced through public education aimed at raising awareness of disease prevention
Download the paper here.
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Yamuna - Talk by Prof Brij Gopal and Manoj Misra at the “Living rivers, dying rivers” series, organised at IIC, New Delhi in July 2011

Guest post: Amita Bhaduri

The second lecture in the series titled "Living rivers, dying rivers" was delivered on the subject of Yamuna river by Prof. Brij Gopal, Former Prof. of JNU and Manoj Misra, PEACE Institute and Yamuna Jiye Abhiyan. The lecture held on July 11, 2011 at the India International Centre, New Delhi highlighted the complex challenges faced by the river which on the one hand is worshipped as a divinity and on the other hand abused. The series coordinated by Prof. Ramaswamy R Iyer aimed at understanding what has been happening to rivers across India and in drawing appropriate lessons.

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"Launch research initiative to mainstream groundwater into urban water supply" - Arghyam’s inputs to the 2013-14 pre-budget consultation of the Finance Minister with social sector groups

This document spells out the details of two initiatives proposed by Arghyam, on the management of groundwater resources. These were the inputs given by Rohini Nilekani, Chairperson, Arghyam, to the Finance Minister at the pre-budget consultation event that took place on 4th January, 2013.

The on-going transformation of human settlements from rural to urban areas over a period of time has had a severe impact on natural resources. The immediate and noticeable impact of urbanisation has been on groundwater. While it remains as an essential source of urban water supply, its over-exploitation has led to the falling of water tables and also depletion of water resources in particular geographical regions of the country. Deterioration of the groundwater quality is also increasing at a rapid pace. Thus managing and sustaining groundwater in India has become a challenging task.

Under such circumstances mainstreaming groundwater into urban water supply planning and implementation is becoming essential. This note by Arghyam tries to work towards achieving this goal, and attempts to provide a plan for better management of groundwater resources.Read More

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Arghyam’s inputs to the 2013-14 pre-budget consultation of the Finance Minister with social sector groups (2013)1.02 MB
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