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Two Test Reports: One Aim to pick a Water Purification Method, clarification required! - Rourkela, Orissa

I am living in Rourkela, Orissa. I have  a bore well connection for water supply. There are two problems I am facing:

1. Every drop of water  leaves a white mark behind. This white mark is powdery n can be scratched with some effort. All the utensils and all the sanitary items on which water has fallen have become spotted. They disapear when washed with water n then reappear when dry. I guess its calcium.

2. Secondly all the water outlets be it taps , shower etc get jammed very frequently and reduce water supply speed. On opening them i find hard light green and white deposits on the edges of the wire mesh filters inside the taps and all the holes plugged along with it. They are a little difficult to remove.

I think the water is hard. We sent the water for testing to Govt lab. It says

total hardness: 140 ppm

calcium hardness: 123

Mag Hardness: 17

Chloride: 62 ppm

Sulphate 22 ppm

PH: 8.5

alkalinity: 200 ppm

Another testing was done by a private water purification solution provider:

It says:

ph: 8.5

chloride: 86 ppm

sulphate: 22 ppm

Hardness(Calcium) : 300 ppm

So I am confused to what mode of water treatment that I should follow. Does following the recommendations of the company to install an ion exchange unit make sense in light of the above data? Or should I get the same re - tested further? Kindly advice.

Apurv Agarwal

apurv245@gmail.com

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Comments

1.

Dear Mr.Agarwal,

From the description of the problem you are facing, it looks like your problem is due to the total dissolved solids (TDS) in your bore well.Unfortunately,both the test reports of water you have given in your mail do not give the figure for TDS.If you have it(probably in the Govt.Lab report), please mail it to me for a proper diagnosis and a solution.

1.Yes, please get your water analysed again by another lab and ask them to do a COMPLETE mineral analysis report with reference to BIS-10500 which is the Indian standard for water used for drinking.

2. Collect as much as possible of the deposits from your pipes/taps (approx 200gms) and give this sample to a lab to analyse to find out the composition of this deposit. This test report may give the best clue to solve the problem.

Lastly, if you boil in a steel vessel,do you get a white scale or sediment at the bottom of the vessel?

Looking forward to hearing from you.

Regards
S.S.Ranganathan

S.S.Ranganathan

2.

Dear Apurv,

The problem faced by you is caused due to hard water very high in sulphates, Chloride etc.However the test results provided by you does not match with your problem as the test report shows that water is not hard, however the calcium is somewhat on higher side, kindly provide the results of Total Dissolved Solids also after getting sample retested so that some opinion is made.

Regards,

AMIT KUMAR SINGH,
CHEMIST,
P.H.E.D. WATER TESTING LAB,
KARNAL-132001 (HARYANA)
09416-204204
09729-248248
ak_ranaji3@yahoo.co.in

Amit Kr. Singh,
Govt. of Haryana,
Public Health Engg. Department,
Water Testing Lab,Karnal-132001(haryana)
09416204204,09729248248,
ak_ranaji3@yahoo.co.in

3.

Dear Apurv,

Depending on the end use of water, the analyses report of a sample of that water gives a clear indication of the type of purification that is required. In brief, the following are the purification processes available in India.

a. Water with turbidity in excess of limit specified in BIS 105000:
• Pressure filtration with addition of a coagulant.
• Pressure filtration with chlorination/ozonisation if bacteria is present.

b. Water with total hardness in excess of limit specified by BIS 105000:
• Sodium base exchange water softening or nano filtration.

c. Water with TDS level in excess of limit specified in BIS 105000:
• Reverse Osmosis desalination or electrodialysis depending on the level of TDS present.

d. Water with iron content in excess of limit specified by BIS 105000.
• If iron is in the dissolved form, aeration of water to oxidize and precipitate the iron, coagulant dosage followed by pressure filtration. OR
• Using an iron removal filter containing iron removal media.

e. Water with Fluoride content in excess of the limit specified by BIS 105000:
• Using a Deflouridation unit containing fluoride removal media.

f. Water with only bacteriological contamination ( for domestic use):
• Boiling for 20 minutes, exposure to ultra violet light, iodination, and ultrafiltration.

There are companies with substantial and proven expertise in water purification using all the above purification processes that can assess the user’s requirement accurately and select appropriate treatment systems which they can supply, install and service.

With best regards,

Abhishek Mendiratta
Consultant
Water Resource
New Delhi

4.

Dear Apurv,

It looks, as you presumed; "Ca" may be present in excess quantity. Moreover, you should test the TDS in the sample. That may also be in excess quantity. I feel that due to incrustation your plumbings are getting clogged.

You have not mentioned end users and daily demand. R.O may be a solution if TDS is high.

Kindly let me know if you find better solution.

With regards,

Diponkar Bordoloi
Assistant Engineer
Public Health and Engineering Department (PHED)
Guwahati, Assam

5.

Dear Apurv Agarwal,

Two reports are rather quite different. As per first report, hardness is well with in the permissible limit. Second report indicates that water hardness is high.

Your problems can be due to this.

However, it may be better to get the water tested in a third laboratory (BIS/Government approved) prior to the installation of softener. You may also ask for Total dissolved solids test.

With regards,

Leela Iyengar
Advisor
Arghyam
Bangalore

6.

Dear Mr Agrawal

Water test results shows high alkalinity whereas TH is 140 ppm. Total anions are more than cations shows there is Na present in excess. In my opinion TDS level of your water will be more than 500 ppm.

Second, your water source is borewell, I think there is considerable amount of TSS in your water. At the point of water use there is coagulation of these suspending fine particles and precipitation of salts which causes "chokage" of shower.

In my opinion simply install micro filters train at the outlet of your main storage tank. These filters are readily available in market. You can install these filters in parallel depending on the peak water use you can easily calculate the quantity of filters. TDS upto 500 level is acceptable and there is no need to go for RO treatment except for drinking/cooking purpose. for washing and bathing 500 tds is just ok.

with best regards

AK Singla
Power & utilities Engineer (Water Treatment section)
Panipat Refinery
Panipat(haryana)
email : singlaak@iocl.co.in

AK SINGLA


 

7.

Dear Sir,

I have noted the content of your query and the answers provided by all the specialist. We may conclude the cause of the problem is mainly due to excess presence of Calcium.

If we keenly observe your test analysis we can notice that there is lot of variation in the calcium hardness for the same sample in the bore well water. I guess the water sampling might have conducted at two different times.

Instead of blindly changing the laboratories for analysing the water. Why do not we think that the bore well water is behaving abnormally, by changing its quality with time.

Does the quality of the source water, that is from the bore well changes with time. "Is it possible.

My experience in 80s in shallow bore wells of Coastal area, In 90s in medium deep bore wells of Coimbatore and Kerala hard rock areas and much more recently in the hard rock areas of Tuticorin indicates, that the quality of water with every zone changes with respect to depth. And quality of water with respect to time of pumpages also vary very widely.

About one month before while drilling a deep bore well of about 8 kilometer interior to the coastal belt, while drilling water occurred at 4 different zones, vice, 80 feet, 520 feet, 1010 feet and 1335 feet depth ranges in Gneisse. While drilling was in progress the sample was analysed using portable kit and latter on using the same sample was analysied in the SGS laboratory at Chennai.

We may kindly note that the TDS was around 7500 at 80 feet, 4500 at 520 feet, 1400 at 1010 feet and 650 at 1335 feet. After that we conducted seven days continues pumping test and at every 3 hours we took the sample on the first day and at every 6 hours on the second day and so on and analysed the sample. It showed, wide variation in changes to the individual components of different compounds, but the TDS went down from 7800 to 5800. Now we are planning to close the 80 feet zone and go for RO plant, as its is hard rock area it may be difficult to block the other saline zone. The total yield of the bore well is 6'' and beyond that depth we could not drill further. We are trying to reach still deeper.

Similarly I feel that there may be variation in the quality of the individual components and also TDS with respect to time. Hence "I feel that the constants of the Calcium carbonate may increase with time of pumping, when the discharge zone of the calcuim carbonate rich water bearing aquifer starts contributing heavily to the bore.

Hence I advice you to test your sample at different times, may be at every 3 hours taking the first sample at 1 minute, may be about 3 to 4 sample may help you to find out the variation of the chemical that is causing the trouble and design your treatment accordingly instead of blindly changing the laboratory.

With kind regards,
A. Raja Mohamed
Geophysicist
Coastal Energy Pvt.Ltd.
Chennai.
bismi1234786@gmail.com 09443619352

A. RAJAMOHAMED AMBALAM GEOPHYSICIST COASTAL ENERGY Pvt Ltd, CHENNAI +919443619352

8.

Dear Sir,

I have noted the content of your query and the answers provided by all the specialist. We may conclude the cause of the problem is mainly due to excess presence of Calcium.

If we keenly observe your test analysis we can notice that there is lot of variation in the calcium hardness for the same sample in the bore well water. I guess the water sampling might have conducted at two different times.

Instead of blindly changing the laboratories for analysing the water. Why do not we think that the bore well water is behaving abnormally, bychanging its quality with time.

Does the quality of the source water, that is from the bore well changes with time. "Is it possible.

My experience in 80s in shallow bore wells of Coastal area, In 90s in medium deep bore wells of Coimbatore and Kerala hard rock areas and much more recently in the hard rock areas of Tuticorin indicates, that the quality of water with every zone changes with respect to depth. And quality of water with respect to time of pampages also vary very widly.

About one month before while drilling a deep bore well of about 8 kilometer interior to the coastal belt, while drilling water occured at 4 different zones, vice, 80 feet, 520 feet, 1010 feet and 1335 feet depth ranges in Gneisse. While drilling was in progress the sameple was analysed using portable kit and latter on using the same sample was analysied in the SGS laboratory at Chennai.

We may kindly note that the TDS was around 7500 at 80 feet, 4500 at 520 feet, 1400 at 1010 feet and 650 at 1335 feet. After that we conducted seven days continues pumping test and at every 3 hours we took the sample on the first day and at every 6 hours on the second day and so on and analysed the sample. It showed, wide variation in changes to the indivudual components of deifferent compunds, but the TDS went down from 7800 to 5800. Now we are planning to close the 80 feet zone and go for RO plant, as its is hard rock area it may be difficult to block the other saline zone. The total yield of the bore well is 6'' and beyond that depth we could not drill further. We are trying to reach still deeper.

Similarly I feel that there may be variation in the quality of the individual components and also TDS with respect to time. Hence "I feel that the constants of the Calcium corbonate may increse with time of pumping, when the discharge zone of the calcuim corbonate rich water bearing aquifer starts contributing heavily to the bore.

Hence I advice you to test your sample at differnt times, may be at every 3 hours taking the first sample at 1 minute, may be about 3 to 4 sample may help you to find out the variation of the chemical that is causing the trouble and design your treatment accordingly istead of blindly changing the laboratory.

With kind regards,
A. Raja Mohamed
Geophysicist
Coastal Energy Pvt.Ltd.
Chennai.
bismi1234786@gmail.com 09443619352

A. RAJAMOHAMED AMBALAM GEOPHYSICIST COASTAL ENERGY Pvt Ltd, CHENNAI +919443619352

9.

Dear Apurv Agarwal,

The problem stated by you is due to heavy hardness as calcium carbonate. It deposits in pipes, taps. Utensils even on plastic mugs etc. Though these two analysis reports are showing variation in hardness but are on higher side. One thing is clear that the problem is due to hardness.

However to recheck the analysis, it is advised to go for two more analysis in different labs simultaneously only for TDS and Hardness. Later the decision for necessary treatment can be taken up.

With kind regards

A. Manoharan
Scientist (Water Lab)
Central Pollution Control Board
New Delhi

10. Looking for low maintenance water purifier

Hello Sir,

When I had visited a town nearby, I saw a device which looked like a thread bundle at a height of 5 feet. When I asked what it was, the man at the counter said that it was a water purifier and it runs for a year on 1kg of salt.I want a purifier like this which does not require regular maintenance.

Can someone here help me to find that device? I face a lot of difficulties with respect to finding water for domestic use in my town.

Please help.

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