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Revenue models & Growth patterns of STP, WTP in India:Reports?

I would like to know if there are any reports of figures on the year on year growth in the number of STP and Water Treatment Plants in India?

How many are currently functioning and What kind of revenue models do these plants operate with?

Hiren Mody



1. In a related thread,

In a related thread, responses to the query dealing with "Sewage Treatment Plants, Effluent Treatment Plants: List" on the Portal would prove beneficial. Access here:


Citizens pay for the water, even if partly, and therefore the WTP do operate on a revenue model where at least a part of the expenditure is recovered from the users. But I am not aware of any case where the entire operational cost is thus recovered, and the rest is subsidized by the Government. In India, citizens do not pay for waste water treatment directly, and therefore the cost of STP and also the operational cost is entirely paid by the Government.

All this is either entirely true, or true for all except one or two cases. Some new management experiments were tried and you should specifically inquire the model used in Tirupur, Dewas, and Surat. Industry pays for the industrial effluent treatment plants put up by them.

“How many are currently functioning” is an incorrect question. Barring exceptions, I see no reason why a WTP or STP would stop functioning and be abandoned. But if you had asked “to what extent are these functioning”, then the answer would have been, by and large WTPs function well (because if they don’t there is an immediate civic distress) but STPs capacity utilization is often very poor.

Chetan Pandit


Dear Hiren Mody,

Water charges along with component towards sewage is billed to consumers and no separate charges are billed for creation of WTP/STP.

Around 9275 MLD of waste water is generated and only 2923mld is treated in metro cities. Further the utilization of full capacity is not there. WTP/STP is funded by govt.


Vijay Kumar Babbar
Chief Engineer (Civil)
Delhi Jal Board
Varunalaya, Phase-II,
Jhandewalan, Karol Bagh,
New Delhi-110005

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