You may login with either your assigned username or your e-mail address.
The password field is case sensitive.

All About TDS (Total Dissolved Solids)

The below is a compilation of answers recieved to TDS related questions on India Water Portal. Contributors include:

Mr. S.S. Ranganathan

Dr. Jagadiswara Rao

Prof. Shivaji Rao

Mr. Taral Kumar

Mr. Chetan Pandit

Our thanks to all the respondents -- IWP

========

 1.) What is TDS ?

TDS is Total Dissolved Solids.

Water dissolves the minerals present in the strata of soil it filers through in the case of ground water and, in the case of surface water, the minerals present in the soil over which it flows (rivers/streams) or over which it stands (lakes, ponds, reservoirs).The dissolved minerals in water are commonly referred to as Total Dissolved Solids (TDS). The TDS content of any water is expressed in milligrams /litre (mg/l) or in parts per million (ppm). These units are equivalent.
The minerals are basically compounds (salts) of Calcium(Ca), Magnesium(Mg) and Sodium(Na) What is commonly called as ‘hardness in water’ is due to the compounds/salts of   Ca and Mg such as  Calcium or Magnesium Chloride, Calcium or Magnesium Sulphate ( CaSo4, MgCl, etc).Some types of dissolved solids are specifically dangerous even in low quantities. This includes arsenic, fluorides and nitrates. There are particular standards for the acceptable amounts of these elements in water and in some cases like fluoride, there is some disagreement as to what constitutes safe levels.

 Leaving aside the specific harmful chemicals fluoride and arsenic, drinking water for human beings should contain some level of minerals (TDS), but these levels should not be excessive.

2.) What are the TDS standards ?

The standard that applies to India is the BIS 10500-1991 standard.This standard used the WHO standard as the basis and has been amended subsequently to take into account the fact that over exploitation of ground water which has the largest share of water supplied for human use has deteriorated to such an extent that the crucial parameters such as TDS, hardness, Chlorides, etc usually exceed the desirable levels substantially. Consequently, a higher permissible limit has been specified. Water used for drinking becomes unpalatable when the TDS level is above 500 mg/l, but lack of any better source enables people consuming such water to get used to its taste. The BIS standard applies to the purity level acceptable for human beings to drink. For practically all industrial and some commercial uses, the purity levels required are very much higher and in most cases demand water with virtually no residual dissolved solids at all.   

BIS Standard says that the maximum desirable TDS is 500 mg/L and the maximum permissible level in the absence of a better source of water is 2000 mg/L. A related standard is the 'hardness measured as CaCO3" where the maximum desirable is 300 mg/L and maximum permissible is 600 mg/L.

Click here for reference

WHO Standards:

"Water containing TDS concentrations below 1000 mg/litre is usually acceptable to
consumers, although acceptability may vary according to circumstances. However, the presence of high levels of TDS in water may be objectionable to consumers owing to the resulting taste and to excessive scaling in water pipes, heaters, boilers, and household
appliances (see also the section on Hardness).
Water with extremely low concentrations of TDS may also be unacceptable to consumers because of its flat, insipid taste; it is also often corrosive to water-supply systems "
Reference: [url]http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/chemicals/tds.pdf[/url] 

US EPA Standard: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recognises broadly two categories of drinking water standards, known as maximum-contaminant-level goal (MCLG) and secondary maximum contaminant level (SMCL). The MCLG is a health goal set at a concentration at which no adverse health effects are expected to occur and the margins of safety are judged “adequate,” while the SMCL is a non-enforceable guideline that presents no risk to human health. While fixing no limit for MCLG, the EPA has fixed an upper limit of 500 mg/L for SMCL. This limit has been fixed to avoid undesirable aesthetic effects of odour, taste and colour that could be felt by consumers and technical effects of corrosion, incrustation, staining, scaling and sedimentation of pipelines and other fixtures that convey water. Despite not fixing a limit to MCLG of TDS, high TDS water can have certain other constituents at harmful levels of SMCL to cause adverse health effects. Thus MCLG can be a few times more than the SMCL.

Very low TDS: Due to insipid or bitter taste and lack of useful minerals, too-low TDS also causes problems. There does not seem to be a generally accepted lower limit, but 80 mg/L may be used.

3.) Measurement:

TDS can be measured very fast using a low-cost portable conductivity meter (TDS meter) calibrated to give TDS directly by anybody with extreme ease. It costs hardly Rs. 2000/- and the only recurring expenditure is occasional replacement of batteries. It is worthwhile for users of well water, piped water and packaged water and practitioners of rainwater harvesting and groundwater recharging to test water TDS as a matter of routine. It may be noted that TDS of rainwater is only a few tens of mg/L. Any sudden increase in TDS of water is a signal that water is getting contaminated with some high-TDS water.

 4.) Mitigation

UV, UF and other conventional filtration methods will not affect TDS. The only one which works is Reverse Osmosis

Reverse Osmosis:

RO is the only commonly used domestic filtration system that removes even the dissolved impurities. RO is required if the Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) exceeds a certain value. (what is the upper limit ? Look for discussion on that elsewhere in IWP). RO is also suggested if you have reasons to believe that your water may be contaminated with sewage/ pesticides/ heavy metals/ industrial effluents.

A problem with RO is, it needs a lot of water. It divides the input water in two parts, and forces the dissolved solids out from one part in to other. Thus, the output comprises two streams of water – a “clean” stream with low TDS and cleaned of other impurities too. And a “reject” stream that is even more dirty than the input water. Typically, an input of 3 liters will give 1 liter of clean water and 2 liters of “reject”. Theoretically, the “reject” water can be used for mopping the floor etc. but few have the discipline to do that.

Reduction of TDS changes the taste and pH of water, and it is not good to reduce the TDS too low. Some manufacturers make a hybrid machine that combines RO with either UV or UF. Bulk of the water is processed by RO, to remove dissolved solids; and some is processed by either UF or UV, to kill micro-organisms, but retaining the dissolved solids. The two are combined to restore the dissolved solids to some lower limit. The ratio of mixing the two can be controlled by user.

The cost of RO systems is in the region of Rs. 10,000/- to 15,000/- The RO works under some pressure, which is developed by an internal pump, and therefore it needs electricity to operate.

With very high TDS levels in the 1000s, conventional domestic RO units may not be able to work
effectively.

Rainwater harvesting is a useful permanent solution where other sources of water have unacceptably high levels of TDS or hardness. TDS of rainwater is a few tens of mg/L

Water softening does not reduce TDS. In water softening sodium replaces calcium and magnesium, in the dissolved solids which causes a minor reduction only in TDS.

Tags:

Comments

1.

We welcome further responses or critiques of the above -- India Water Portal

2. RO filters needed for any TDS value

I have read many comments, everybody is talking TDS and TDS means Total Dissolved Solids or Total Dissolved Solvents. TDS can be measured in ppm and by a using a Rs. 500 instrument which is easily available in market even a lay man can find TDS of water.  The criteria that should be taken for the use of RO fiter is if hardness is below 400 ppm and if hardness is above 410 ppm then softener is needed along with RO as water may contain flouride, nitrates, arsenic, phosphorus, zinc, radioactive elements, lead, excess of chlorine and all these are carcinogens.  RO filter is needed for any TDS and TDS after the RO process should be adjusted with mineral dosing or by blending process, when we blend we must use ozonization and ultra violet of 265 nm wave length light with quartz lining, as approved and only with these conditions pure drinking water is possible. If you have any question please feel free to ask me and I will answer them with example.

3. RO filter needed for any TDS value

Dear ZWT

I would like to challenge your statement that RO filter is needed for any filter. I find that RO manufacturers are advising many unwary people to instal RO systems even when the TDS is within 1000 ppm. They also seem to advise that the RO treated water with 1140 or so TDS can then be blended with raw water to get palatability! I also want to challenge your statement that ozonisation and UV are necessary after such blending. When we have water with TDS 1000 or less , there is no need to reduce the TDS and the safest way is to boil and cool it before drinking it.Ozonisation is a costly process and totally unwarranted.

YOur comment that TDS meters are available for Rs 500 has to be qualified that their accuracy does not last long and the buyers should either keep a sample of water of known TDS or buy the same and periodically check the accuracy of their meters before testing any fresh sample.I speak all this from two decades of experience in the field.

4. Water with TDS 1000 not fit for consumption

A water having 1000 TDS is not fit for consumption.  See the TDS meter,  which I have told is made in USA and also approved. Its price including tax comes up Rs. 900 only.

In terms of experience, I have 12 years and I can operate, repair, analyse  machines.

In my opinion only 50 PPM is good for drinking, as our body works on ions exchange, nutrition, vitamins, carbohydrates and K ions, ca ions, na ions are responsible for BP, muscular contracation.

We are even providing RO water at Rs. 1 for 10 liters w ith the help of vending machine for economically weak people.

Zarna water technology
cxcwallis@gmail.com
9036450376

5. RO purifier is preferred if there are heavy metals and fluoride

The salts we get from water is miniscule compared to that we get from food.

Assuming we consume 6 litres of water per day, so @ 1000 ppm TDS we consume very little of the " 6 grams" of salts through water.

There are lot of mineral water brands world wide which operate at 500 ppm TDS (eg: Avian). Even high TDS waters taste good if the salts are in certain proportion. 

An individual's reception for taste of water depends on his body's deficiency for certain salts and that is why some people feel good with high Magnesium and some like high potasium etc.

The RO purifier is  preferred if there are any heavy metals, Fluoride etc. in water.

6.

Natural waters contain both dissolved solids and suspended solids. Dissolved solids pass through a 0.45-µm (micrometer) membrane filter, while suspended solids are retained by the filter. TDS can be expressed in mg/l (milligrams per litre) or ppm (parts per million). Mg/l is the weight of the dissolved material in one litre of water, while ppm is the weight of dissolved material in 1 million equal weights of solution (that is, milligrams per kilogram). By multiplying TDS in ppm with water density, TDS in mg/l is obtained. As density is the mass of any substance per unit volume at a designted standard temperature such as 20ºC, water temperature has to be also taken into account for a more precise determination of TDS expressed in ppm.

Most workers dealing with fresh water express TDS in mg/l, while oceanographers dealing with saline waters use salinity instead of TDS and express it in ppm. As density of fresh water is nearly one, there will not be much difference in TDS expressed in mg/l or ppm. When TDS is under 7,000 mg/l, no correction need be made as the difference in TDS expressed in either way is within the experimental error. But when TDS is more, correction has to be necessirily made. Thus TDS of 35,000 ppm of sea water with a density of 1.028 will be 35,980 mg/l.

The international reference points for standard setting and drinking-water safety given by most public health agencies in the world including the World Health Organization (WHO), European Union (EU) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) do not include any health-based guideline for TDS, implying that human health is not affected by drinking high-TDS water. On grounds of palatability, several agencies including the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) and the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) have presecribed 500 mg/l as the desirable limit of TDS for drinking water. The upper limit of TDS in the absence of alternate source is fixed at 2000 mg/l by the BIS and 3000 mg/l by the ICMR. Although many people find water with high TDS to be not palatable, the same is equally true with that very low TDS. Those accustomed to drinking highly mineralised waters find even water with a TDS of 500 mg/l to be tasteless. More than the actual TDS of drinking water, a change in the water TDS from high to low and vice versa is not desirable as it can even cause gastric disturbances.

In popular usage, ‘high-TDS water’ is used as a synonym to ‘hard water’. In the scientific usage, high-TDS water means the sum of all its dissolved constituents including sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, carbonate, bicarbonate, chloride, sulphate etc., while hardness of water is taken as the sum of calcium and magnesium expressed as mg/l CaCO3. Based on the hardness value, water is said to be soft when it is less than 60, moderately hard when between 61 and 120, hard when between 121-180 and very hard when over 180. In view of the distinctly different scientific meanings attached to the terms – ‘high-TDS water’ and ‘hard water’, it is best not to use them as synonyms and thereby avoid needless confusion.

Plants grow best with rainwater or low-TDS water rather than with high-TDS water. It is not economically viable to treat high-TDS water into low-TDS water for irrigation. Like oceanographers, agricultural scientists also use salinity as a synonym to TDS. If high-TDS water alone is available for irrigation, hard water should be preferred over soft water. Waters with high alkalinity and high ratio of sodium to calcium should be avoided as they enhance soil pH, reduce soil tilth and permeability and impair plant growth. Water with high ratio of calcium to sodium is desirable because calcium flocculates the soil colloids and tends to maintain good soil structure and permeability.

It is however not desirable to spray high-calcium water on leaves of plants as precipitation of calcium carbonate blocks the pores, causing loss of leaf. If drip irrigation is practiced with such waters, the dripper heads have to be cleaned regularly to avoid their blockage by calcium carbonate. The same is true even with domestic pipelines and appliances.

Industrial tolerances for TDS differ widely, but few industrial processes will permit more than 1000 mg/l. In contrast to irrigation, soft water is preferred over hard water in many industrial processes. Although water treatment is rarely practiced for waters used at household and farm levels, water treatment to convert hard water into soft water through ion exchange and high-TDS water into low-TDS water through reverse osmosis are essential in many industrial processes.

Dr. R. Jagadiswara Rao
Former Professor of Geology
Sri Venkateswara University
Tirupati, AP 517502
rjagadiswara@gmail.com

Dr. R. Jagadiswara Rao, Professor of Geology Retired, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati, AP 517502, India rjagadiswara@gmail.com

7. Thanks

Thank you very much Sir for the valuable information provided by you on TDS level in drinking water

8. Does using RO water effect agricultural production ?

I am working in Gujarat Environment Management Institute as Junior Scientist, can you please provide information about TDS level in agriculture water ?

If we use R.O. water in agriculture, what is the effect on production, it is positive impact or negative ?

Thank you,

Sima

9. What is the unit of hardness in TDS meter?

Thank you! but I have one doubt about the hardness units of the range mentioned, 61 to 120 for hard water etc in your article are in PPM.

Whether the same units are shown in the TDS meter also, please clarify.

Thanks
Santosh

10. Opinions vary as to the

Opinions vary as to the effect of low TDS in water, see for what people have said on the subject.

11. Access a discussion on the

Access a discussion on the Ambiguities in TDS Levels & more on the Portal

http://www.indiawaterportal.org/ask/5685

12. Reducing TDS with out employing RO process.

Dear Sir,

I am working in a dairy farm. Recently we have tested our water source and it has TDS content of 1534 mg/lt. I wants to reduce the TDS to less than 600 mg/lt. I don't want to go for RO process, since the process is not cost effective for farm use. So, please suggest me about other cost effective methods to reduce TDS. Awaiting your reply.

Thanks and Regards

Dr. D.Muruganandam

09940109391.

13. Boil water and use ceramic filter

I found that ARWA PLUS is the company who have a water filter that adds some minerals to reduce the TDS content. But when the mineral is added in it, again it increases, though it is good for health.

Its better that you boil the water and use ceramic filter. This will reduce the TDS 

Shaikh

14. About pH

Sir,

Please let me know what is the permissible or upper limit of pH for drinking water from RO?

15. 6.5 -8 is permissible Ph limit

6.5 -8 is permissible Ph limit

16. Experts comments on TDS - A critique

1. The section on US EPA (American) standards is totally unnecessary and is best dropped as:

  • it does not add anything significant in addition to what has already been stated earlier and 
  • it will only confuse laymen with its terminology.

2. Very low TDS: Water with very low TDS is stated to create problems. May I know what these problems are? When we give information to laymen, it is important not to arouse unnecessary concerns and if concerns are aroused, solutions to them must be given.

The only two aspects that are relevant are:

  • the water may taste flat; and 
  • much more water will be necessary to remove the soap from the hands or the body.

3. WHO Standards: This section again I would say is unnecessary as it is repetitive. A few comments from here can be included under the very first section like,

  • water with very low TDS may be corrosive to plumbing lines, where the lines are of GI. The italicized words must be added as to day most of the plumbing is of PVC which is not affected.
  • high TDS, particularly chlorides, will also affect plumbing lines of GI. Where these are of PVC, sulphates and chlorides may get deposits and eventually become clog the pipes.
  • where the water contains more than 0.5 ppm of iron, the water will stain clothes and deposition in the pipes will occur.
  • water containing fluoride is harmful only if consumed, but can be used for bathing without any health risk.

4. Mitigation: The impact of rainwater harvesting has to be mentioned. Rainwater dilutes iron content over a period and obviates the need for troublesome iron removal units, dilutes fluoride content and in general, improves the quality of the ground water.

Indukanth Ragade

17. What is the desired level of TDS for watering plants?

Hello

I want to know what is the desired level of TDS for watering plants, gardens and for other landscaping purposes?

Thanks
Ashish Bhayani
+91-9824417071

18. TDS range for drinking water

Dear Sir, 

TDS of our locality is 350mg/l.

Is it good for health or should we use RO filter?

19. There is no need to go for RO

There is no need to go for RO system. Just check whether any heavy metal is present in the water.
Just install a sand filter at the source of use for this water which will take care of suspended solids present in the water.

Vaibhao
+971506315266

20. TDS of drinking water should be between 100- 300

TDS of drinking water should be between 100- 300. So no need to go in for RO Filter. These RO filters also remove many essential minerals from water along with sulphates, chlorides etc.

21. River water TDS is 20 PPM - is it safe for drinking?

Sir,

Please clarify, we drink pure water from the river which is hardly about 20 PPM, TDS in our village (the water source is Cauvery from south Karnataka), so is it safe to drink pure water.

22. Using UV filter or boiling and storing the water is sufficient

Kindly use UV filter that is sufficient or else you can boil and store in a good vessel, as it is surface water source and there is nothing to worry

23. Pl see the write up on 'All about TDS'

Dear Dheeraj,

Pl see the write up on 'All about TDS' (Total Dissolved Solids)

Indukanth Ragade

24. Low TDS is best

Fluoride depletes the body of iodine and many thyroid problems are a result of this chemical being in the food and drink supplies. In fact, iodized salt is the result of children getting goiters when fluoride was first introduced. It is a myth that fluoride is good for the teeth. It makes them brittle and crack easier. Primitive man did not get cavities and ate very low amounts of fluoride naturally found in some foods.

The fluoride that is added to water and foods comes from the byproduct of fertilizer production and is toxic waste. Fluoride is one of the most deadly poisons known to man.

Look on the fluoride toothpaste in your cabinet and see the "WARNING" space there about not allowing children under 6 years old use it without being supervised. If it is so wonderful, why is the warning there? Because if they eat it, they can get very sick.

So low TDS is best.

25. Presence of fluoride in water is harmful even if TDS is low

Dear Mr.Ritish

While you are cautioning people about the dangers of drinking water containing fluoride is to be appreciated, you have erroneously mixed up TDS and fluoride content. Presence of fluoride salts in water is harmful for human health even if that water has low TDS. Water which contains no fluorides but has very low TDS is not very palatable, although there is no harm in drinking it.

26. What is the TDS range for drinking water

What is the TDS range for drinking water?

27. TDS of drinking water

TDS of drinking water should ideally be less than 150 mg/l

28. TDS of drinking water - Preferable range 100-500 mg/litre

In drinking water, TDS should be preferably in the range of 100mg/liter (100 ppm, parts per million) to maximum of 500mg/liter (500 ppm, parts per million). Water having TDS above 500 ppm will taste salty.

Studies done by the WHO showed that water consumed by rats, dogs and cats with TDS below 100 ppm had bad effects on the animal's stomach.

29. What is the TDS range for drinking water?

What is the TDS range for drinking water?

30. Want to establish bioculture to reduce COD, but TDS is high

Hi,

I am working in a pesticide company and our effluent has TDS 100000 & COD 12000. We are trying to establish bio culture to reduce COD, but due to high TDS microbial activity slows down. How we can treat the TDS?

Regards,
Akshay Naware

31. Questions about TDS level in drinking water and RO purifiers

Hi,

A sales person with a renowned water purifier manufacturer wanted to sell me a RO purifier.

To prove how unhealthy my tap water was, he dipped a TDS meter into a glass of tap water. The reading was 900+. He then claimed that the purifier he was pitching for would give me a TDS count between 100 - 150.

  • I have a few questions regarding this claim.
  • I forgot to see the TDS meter unit. Was it in "ppm" or "mg/l"?
  • How can I convert ppm to mg/lit or vice versa?
  • If a glass of water (300 ml) contained TDS level @900+, would 1 liter of tap water contain more TDS?
  • The RO purifier, I saw, had this technical spec - "Total Dissolved Solids 200 mg/lit (min) – 2000 mg/lit (max)". To me this spec means that 1 liter of filtered water will have a minimum 200 mg TDS count.
  • Also, the purifier cannot filter TDS level > 2000 mg/lt. Is my understanding correct?
  • Another technical spec mentioned was that the purifier could remove almost 90% of TDS present in water. The sales person claimed that if my water had 500 TDS count, TDS count of the filtered water would be 50. Is this claim correct, given that the minimum range for that RO Purifier is 200 mg/lt?

32. Need configuration for water treatment plant (RO, UV & Ozone)

I want to start a water treatment project with RO, UV, and Ozone treatments with a capacity of 1000/Lph. So please suggest the best configuration for the plant with the brand name, make and size.

Thanks

33. Get in touch with us - We manufacture RO plants

Dear Sir,

Please get in touch with us. We are manufacturers of RO plants.

Contact us on dixit@pandawatertech.com/09998820564

34. Need quotation for 1000/LPH RO plant along with UV and ozone

Send me a quotation for a 1000/LPH RO plant along with UV and ozone. Contact me at luvaaki85@rediffmail.com

Akash Rungta, Kolkata

35. Godavari mineral water technologies

We manufacture RO systems and service water treatment plants. We can help you out as per your requirements. For details contact: +91-9985225988, +91-9676364646 Email: godavarimineraltechnologies@gmail.com

36. High sulphate than TDS - Is it possible?

It is possible to have high sulphate ion content at 800 ppm compared to TDS at 280 ppm in borewell water?

37. It's a totally wrong report

It looks like a totally wrong report, the water report must be sulphate

38. TDS cannot be less than the sulphate content

Dear Mr. Kaushik,

The sulphate content in water is invariably expressed as the quantum of sulphate radical and so the TDS cannot be less than the sulphate content.

Indukanth Ragade

39. TDS comparision - India, US, UK, and Europe

What is the TDS and hardness limits for drinking mineral water according to Indian standards, American, European and British standards? What is the level of TDS (when low) that will affect health?

40. Is there any filtration other than RO to reduce TDS for farm use

Dear Sir,

We live in an area that has been in a drought for the last year and a half. The city has been placed on water restrictions so we had two wells drilled, mainly for the capacity. The wells are for irrigation only but we have a high TDS level.

Twelve neighbors recently drilled at the same time. We drilled the wells to save our pecan and oak trees only to discover the hardness will kill the trees.

Is there any kind of filtration system, other than R.O.'s to reduce the level? An R.O is simply too costly.

Please help. Thank you.

41. Try water softeners

Dear Sir,

All your problems will be solved by installing a softener. Approximate cost 2,00,000/-

42. Water found to be hard - Should I install a softener?

Recently I tested the water from my borewell. These are the negatives shown in the report.

  • Total hardness as CACO3: 898 mg/l.
  • Carbonate hardness: 521 mg/l.
  • Non-Carbonate hardness:521 mg/l.
  • Non Carbonate hardness:377 mg/l.

Is it required to put a softener plant? It is a residential premise. Please help me in taking a decision on whether to go for a softener plant.

43. What is the difference between drinking water and mineral water

I wanted to know the difference between drinking water and mineral water. These are the two types of bottled water and I was told that drinking water does not consist of any mineral. And mineral water consists of required minerals. Is this true? If so, will the drinking water have any health effects?

44. The difference between drinking and mineral water

(Comment from Mr. Indukanth Ragade)

Dear Mr. Samir

Drinking water is water which contains no suspended materials, is colourless and odourless, has no organic materials dissolved in it and has a limited quantity of dissolved inorganic salts as specified by the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) as detailed in the opening note by the IWP panel.

Mineral water correctly refers to natural water from mountain springs which contained naturally occuring inorganic salts (minerals) which was felt to be not only pure water but also very palatable. What is sold today as mineral water is nothing but ground water which conforms to the criteria of the BIS bottled and sold at a premium.

When some of the bottled water manufacturers claim that their water has added minerals, they are fooling the public. For instance, water supplied by the Chennai Metropolitan Water Supply and Sewerage Board conforms to the drinking water standards and can be safely used for drinking and cooking after boiling and cooling. But people tend to assume that this water may be contaminated and would rather buy the so-called bottled water whose source we do not know.

One simple four-way test to find if any water is safe for drinking, the following procedure can be followed:
1. See if it is clear and not coloured
2. See if it is free from suspended materials
3. See if it has any odour. It should not have any odour.
4. Take a small sip and see if the tongue accepts it i.e. it is palatable.

This test can be applied in situation while travelling and one has to decide whether the water served by the eatery is safe to drink or not.
Incidentally, the scepticism about the piped water supply is also very much there in the U.S. also where also the bottled water industry is a billion dollar one.

Indukanth Ragade - isragade@yahoo.com

45. Can I use Aquaguard's refuse water for plants?

Is Aquaguard's waste water (resultant water after the purification process) useful for plants? Please help me! I am worried about today's water crises and want to save water!

46. The water can be used

Dear Mr.Navi

What the aqua guard is supposed to do is to disinfect the water by UV rays. It does not do anything else. I do not understand what you mean by the purification process. How often do you have to do it and what do you in that process? Let me know and I will advise you. As far as I can see, it can be safely used.

Indukanth Ragade

47. What kind of water treatment is done by your water purifier?

Hello Navi,

In order for me to help you in your laudable idea to use the refuse water for plants, you will have to give me details of what is the treatment that your Aquaguard is subjecting your water to.

Indukanth Ragade
(isragade@yahoo.comm)

48. How can I reduce the TDS of brine solution?

Dear Sir,

How can I reduce the TDS of brine solution. Actual brine water's TDS is 15000 ppm, can I reduce it to 2000 ppm? Which method is suitable? Please guide me.

Is it possible for Na Cl (sodium chloride) to precipitate in water and reduce TDS?

49. Difference between drinking water and mineral water

Dear Mr. Samir

Drinking water is water which contains no suspended materials, is colourless and odourless, has no organic materials dissolved in it and has a limited quantity of dissolved inorganic salts as specified by the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) as detailed in the opening note by the IWP panel.

Mineral water correctly refers to natural water from mountain springs which contained naturally occuring inorganic salts (minerals) which was felt to be not only pure water but also very palatable. What is sold today as mineral water is nothing but ground water which conforms to the criteria of the BIS bottled and sold at a premium.

When some of the bottled water manufacturers claim that their water has added minerals, they are fooling the public. For instance, water supplied by the Chennai Metropolitan Water Supply and Sewerage Board conforms to the drinking water standards and can be safely used for drinking and cooking after boiling and cooling. But people tend to assume that this water may be contaminated and would rather buy the so-called bottled water whose source we do not know.

One simple four-way test to find if any water is safe for drinking, the following procedure can be followed:
1. See if it is clear and not coloured
2. See if it is free from suspended materials
3. See if it has any odour. It should not have any odour.
4. Take a small sip and see if the tongue accepts it i.e. it is palatable.

This test can be applied in situation while travelling and one has to decide whether the water served by the eatery is safe to drink or not.
Incidentally, the scepticism about the piped water supply is also very much there in the U.S. also where also the bottled water industry is a billion dollar one.

Indukanth Ragade

50. Which purifier I can go for?

The ground water in my home, which we are using for drinking purpose has a TDS of 122 ppm. Shall I go for RO? or just UV & UF is fine for me.

Please advice.

Thanks

Post new comment

The content of this field is kept private and will not be shown publicly.
CAPTCHA
This question is for testing whether you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions.
12 + 6 =
Solve this simple math problem and enter the result. E.g. for 1+3, enter 4.
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.5 India License.