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CPHEEO water supply norm

What is the basis of selecting 150 litres per capita per day water supply norm for metropolitan cities by CPHEEO?

I need to know the break up and also what should be the percentage of Industrial Commercial and Institutional demand as well as the percentages of losses and Unaccounted for water?



1. CPHEEO norms for water consumption

Dear Debjanimitra,

CPHEEO has laid down guidelines/norms for water consumption per day per person in litres/day/person also expressed as 'litres per capita daily' (lpcd).

According to the guidelines issued by the CPHEEO, 150 lpcd is considered as allowable for consumption at locations(towns/cities) where there is access to a public underground sewerage system.

Where there is no such system, the figure is 135 lpcd.With increasing scarcity of water countrywide, 135 lpcd is more realistic than 150.

The break-up for 135 lpcd is as follows:                                                                       

  • Drinking                         3 lits/person
  • Cooking                         4 lits/person       
  • Bathing                        20 lits/person
  • Flushing(toilets)            40 lits/person
  • Washing clothes            25 lits/person
  • Washing utensils           20 lits/person
  • Gardening                    23 lits/person

           Total               135 lits/person

These figures/guidelines have nothing to do with industrial,commercial and institutional consumption as they can vary depending on industry and size of commercial/institutional usage points.

Percentage of losses/unaccounted for water again is not related to this topic as it is in the domain of water supply boards/authorities of all the towns/cities that have such authorities.


2. Dear Debjanimitra, These

Dear Debjanimitra,

These norms are set by different committees and expert groups, and these vary considerably.
For instance, 'physical standards recommended in case of water supply for small urban areas, vary from as little as 45 lpcd (Zakaria Committee, 1963) to as high as 100 lpcd, (Government of Gujarat, 1989) or to a even higher 95-125 lpcd (NIUA, 1987).
For industrial townships where the water requirement is likely to be more compared to other urban areas, NIUA (1987) recommends a water supply standard of 150-210 lpcd and the COPP (Committee on Plan Projects, 1973) 180-225 lpcd.'
For a detailed analysis see

Mathur, M.P., Rajesh Chandra, Satpal Singh and Basudha Chattopadhyay, (2007), ‘Norms and standards of municipal basic services in India’, Working Paper WP 07-01, National Institute of Urban Affairs, New Delhi, April.


A. J. James

Environmental and Natural Resource Economist
Advisor, Development Consulting Unit
ICRA Management Consultancy Services Pvt. Ltd
Pragmatix Research & Advisory Services Private Limited
Gurgaon, Haryana

3. Average Domestic Water consumption in Indian Cities

Dear Debjanimitra,

Average Domestic Water consumption in Indian Cities (typical)



Consumption in litres/day/person*



5 Litres



5 Litres


Bathing (incl. ablution)

55 Litres


Washing clothes

20 Litres


Washing of utensils

10 Litres


Cleaning of houses

10 Litres


Flushing of latrines

30 Litres


Total for urban areas135 Litres*


Extra for large/metro cities for more institutional needs

15 Litres

Total for Metro cities150 Litres

* Water Supply Engineering by S.K.Garg, Khanna Publishers

Specific need for Institution Fire demand, and Industries please refer manual on water supply and treatment published by this office Para a) b) c) d)

This should be calculated as per demand and not in percentage

The allowable UFW for Water supply pl refer (a) sub par ii)


Mangalam Sankaranarayanan

Deputy Adviser

The Central Public Health and Environmental Engineering Organisation (CPHEEO)

Ministry of Urban Development

Government of India

4. CPHEEO standards for water consumption

The standard of 135 lpcd, while widely accepted, needs review and more specific break-up. The figure given for water used for bathing - 55 L, is too high a figure. 20 L is closer to the reality, although a weekly head bath for women may need more than 20 L. The quantity needed for flushing is again dependent on the size of the cistern and whether a EWC or IWC is used. With a IWC, 4L are enough for hand-flushing and many of today's cisterns do use 4 to 7 litres per flush. Older models of cisterns use more. The usage per person per day can be assumed to be 6 and so 30 to 40 l is closer to reality. But EWCs do need more water per flush. A littlle known fact is that there is what is called the Wardha Pan which has a greater slope than what the sanitary ware manufactures provide currently for IWCs and this would need even less than 4l per flush. If CPHEEO allocates 23 l for gardening, this does not find mention in the BIS specification. Moreover, for healthy and hygienic living, only basic needs have to be considered and gardening cannot be included in the split. With washing machine usage, the usage of water does increase and again this affects the standard, although in specifying a standard for essential needs, one cannot allot more water for machine washing.

Indukanth Ragade (



5. What is the water supply rate for floating population of city?

Can anyone explain about what the water supply rate would be for the floating population of a city?

6. Need details on industrial water usage


I need the industrial water usage per head and for lawn. Kindly send the details.


G. Anandan 95009 11701/99438 10750

7. What is 'industrial usage of water' by an individual?

What is meant by 'industrial usage of water' by an individual? This question is too vague to be replied in any meaningful manner, in the absence of more specific details.

Indukanth Ragade

8. Regarding domestic water consumption in Chhattisgarh

In domestic water consumption it requires to add the quantity of water for cooling homes. In the region of Chhattisgarh plains which is not an arid zone, we consume considerable amount of water in room coolers. Can you now guess the demand of water ?

9. Is 40 lpcd water sufficient for villages to qualify for NRDW

Under N.R.D.W. scheme 40 lpcd is the norm but on other hand the village must be 100% Nirmal gram to qualify for the  3rd instalment. My question is that " is 40 lpcd water sufficient for such village "? If it is not why we are not revising the rate?' Please reply.

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